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Thus, an image gains in semantic value as a result of its recurrence in diverse contexts, and this results in an intensified semantics, which compensates in part for the more tenuous implications of individual poetic figures. Gumilev is said to have foretold his violent death in his poems. The battue ended. At night, lying on my straw mat, I pondered why I feel no remorse, killing animals for amusement, and why my blood-tie with the world only becomes stronger from these killings.

And at night I dreamed that, for participation in some Abyssinian palace coup, I am decapitated. Bleeding profusely, I applaud the skill of the executioner and rejoice at how simple it is, how good, and not at all painful. The serenity of the poet's imagined death here apparently stems from his strong blood-tie krovnaja svyaz with the world, which is paradoxically strengthened by killing. In his dream, the narrator of African Hunt finds himself in somewhat the same position as the animals he has killed for sport.

The greengrocer is also a butcher, and he himself seems related to the animal world, with his udder-like face. The reader's reaction to the scene is one of horror, while the persona expresses a matter-of-fact acceptance of his fate. The theme of man's place in the natural world and his subjection to the power of nature is carried through also in the color imagery. Then, without understanding why, the earth spills both red and green juice onf the sand. The motif of nature continuously dying and being resurrected in changing forms suggests a transmigration of souls, a frequent theme in Gumilev's later work, or a kind of cosmic vitalism, influenced perhaps by Bergson's Creative Evolution.

In this view, the world is in a state of constant evolutionary development, the lines between life and matter, plant and animal are blurred, and the world is a harmonious whole in which human intelligence is but one branch of the universal elan vital The individual is but a manifestation of this urge to life and is part of the universal evolutionary striving to a higher level of consciousness.

In his poetry, Gumilev seems to bow to this force in a kind of happy quietism which is only apparently contradicted by his aggressive life style. Another aspect of the color imagery in this scene gives it a potential allegorical value. The greengrocer wears a red shirt, which, besides tying him to the animal kingdom, has an obvious political significance. He has been widely interpreted as representing the revolution, and this reading is reinforced by the other examples in Gumilev's work of decapitation as punishment for sedition.

We have little information concerning Gumilev's reaction to the revolution, and in fact, his complicity in the counter-revolutionary plot for which he was executed is still uncertain. However, it is likely that Georgij Ivanov's characterization of Gumilev's attitude, for all its unreliability, is not far off the mark. I fought the Germans for three years, and I've hunted lions. But I've never seen any Bolsheviks.

Why not return to Russia? It can hardly be more dangerous than the jungles. Assuming that Gumilev actually travelled the route by streetcar, the greengrocer tableau may have been prompted by a real market. According to a guidebook of Petersburg, line No. The route proceeds along Kronverkskij Prospekt past the Sytnyj Rynok, where one's imaginary reconstruction of the trip would place the greengrocer. Along the route to this point, the Krechinskij mosque would have been visible — a reminder of Beirut, perhaps? Though this line of interpretation is still highly speculative, it is not inconsequential to a complete understanding of the poem.

After all, Gumilev purposely recalls the city of Petersburg in the poem, and, as the backdrop against which his life story was played out, it is of major significance in his retrospective self-analysis. The lyrical hero addresses his thoughts to the house's former inhabitant, Mashenka, and reminisces about a sad farewell. This is the central episode of the poem, and it requires special attention. This episode has been the subject of various speculations as to the identity of the ambiguous female figure. Gumilev's sister-in-law identifies her as the poet's cousin, Masha Kuzmina-Karavaeva, for whom Gumilev allegedly harbored an incestuous love.

Certainly, if we accept the political-allegorical interpretation, Mashenka may be an evocation of old Russia, left behind by the speeding streetcar of the new era. However, like most other images in the poem, this episode has poly-semantic significance and can be interpreted on many levels. Paradoxically, the most literal meaning is the most obscure, hidden in layers of subtext.

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If metaphoric riddles are best resolved in context, subtext, an allusion to another poet, is by nature a metonymic device, since the reader must identify the whole from the part. The subtext becomes a physical part of the new text, a complete understanding of which must then be based on the hidden subtext and the determination of its semantic function.

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The eighteenth century spirit of these stanzas has often been noted. The time shift is motivated by the reminiscences from Pushkin, which recall and preserve the historical and cultural past through literary memory.

"вагоне" English translation

However, the poem is apparently a synthesis of life experiences, and a closer look at the stylization of these stanzas and the remainder of the poem suggests another subtext. In their semantic and stylistic coloring, these stanzas stand out against the rest of this poem and indeed, against all of Gumilev's later poetry, but they contain provocative echoes of the poetry of Anna Akhmatova, Gumilev's first wife and, as the memoirists would have it, his only true love.

For example, the house is a common image in Akhmatova's poems, and most often the description of the house is as simple as the one here, with frequent attention to the detail of windows.

And perhaps as confirmation of the nonaccidental nature of her taste, most of the epithets emphasize the poverty and paleness of objects: a threadbare rug, worn-down heels, a faded flag, etc. In order to love the world, Akhmatova must see it as dear and simple. The archaic stylized term svetlitsa chamber is characteristic of Akhmatova, as is the term Zhenix betrothed, bridegroom for the persona's beloved.

Moreover, Akhmatova's lyrical heroine frequently presents herself as dead or dying, or she appears in an ambiguous state of half-death and half-life, similar to Mashenka in this poem. He indicates that moments of separation form an important starting point in Akhmatova's work for the development of a sense of temporal complexity.

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Gumilev repeats this device with the same purpose. In addition, there are thematic motifs here which correspond to the poets' common experience. The reference to singing, of course, implies poetry, and weaving recalls Penelope's patient waiting for the return of her adventurer-husband. In this section of the city, between Kadetskaja linija and Malaja Neva, were located old-fashioned wooden houses from the Catherine period, an additional motivation, no doubt, for the eighteenth-century motif 25 There are further reminiscences of Akhmatova in the last stanzas, but perhaps this is the place to offer justification for this reading.

Though the details of the Akhmatova-Gumilev relationship are yet to be clarified, there is little doubt that it was a major emotional involvement in Gumilev's life and might naturally play a central role in his poetic reconstruction of his biography. Recognizing Akhmatova as a possible prototype for Mashenka adds a further level of meaning to this already rich image.


However, the figure is carefully and deliberately polysemous, and this biographical reading of the poem by no means discredits the interpretation of Mashenka in more abstract or symbolic terms. Now the free act takes place in time which is flowing and not in time which has already flown. Freedom is therefore a fact. It is something directly experienced in a dynamic series of mutually permeable states, the condition in which the persona of this poem finds himself.

In accordance with the growing religious note in his late poetry, Gumilev may be suggesting that perfect freedom is in giving one's self up to life, action, and God. The circular movement of the planets has traditionally been associated with the idea of time and corresponds to physical, temporal life. As for the image here, one would expect to find a zoo along the streetcar route, and in fact, streetcar No.

The final landscape is the familiar Petersburg naberezhnaja, the Falconet statue of Peter the Great and St. Isaac's cathedral. These monuments evoke a wealth of historical cultural, and literary associations. No less important is their literal meaning as landmarks of the city where Gumilev lived. In a sense, the entire poem is a panihida for Giimilev, 28 the result of which is a recuperation of the self and a sense of liberation from the confines of temporal life.

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According to The Guardian, in an effort to stir up enthusiasm for the wareffort, the poem was set to music in and became a popular patriotic hymn. Struve and B. Filippov Washington: Kamkin, , Erdman New York: Doubleday, , Only love has been left to me, like the string Of an angelic harp beseeching, Piercing my soul, as though with a slender needle, With the blue lights of heaven. Only you have been left to me. Wide awake, Having seen the nighttime sun, Only for you do I live on the earth, Do I accomplish my earthly task.

Yes, in my uneasy fate you are The Jerusalem of pilgrims. I should speak of you In the language of seraphims. This image relates to poetry, for music is intimatelyconnected to poetic art. Yes, in my uneasy fate you are The Jerusalem of pilgrims. These lines seem to place the beloved in theposition of God. Here, too, hubris enters into the discussion, and it becomes clear that hubris,like karma in the traditional Hindu-Buddhist conception of reincarnation, determinesthe nature of subsequent incarnations.

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Who is dearerto me than even my own brother…. On that ancient day, when over the new world God leaned down his face, then They stopped the sun with a word, With a word they destroyed cities. There is one God, there's one Derzhavin, I dreamed in stupid pride. I have one rhyme — ancient Navin, Who stopped the course of the sun. Now a different Derzhavin is seen, And he can be proud of the same rhyme; But that Derzhavin is a priest, not I: On me there's a wig, on him there's a skull-cap. Nashville: Nelson, , Repentant recollections of past hubris continue in the poetic allusions of thenext stanzas.

And the second.

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He loved the wind from the south, In every sound he'd hear the ringing of lyres, He said that life was his girlfriend, That a rug under his feet was a world. Ann Arbor: Ardis, , He praises the poetry of bothperiods as excellent, but explicitly privileges the Acmeist pieces that had beenproduced under his own influence.

Bondarenko Moscow: Biblioteka Vsemirnoi Literatury, , The works this young poet produced eventually became widely known assubtle and sophisticated masterpieces. His stringent adherence toAcemism would later become one of the reasons why he was rated a lesser poet thanMandelstam. By referring to a period when he tried to control Mandelstam afterMandelstam had clearly proven himself the superior writer, Gumilev acknowledgesboth his poetic and personal shortcomings.

He loved three things in the world: Singing at vespers, white peacocks And worn maps of America. He didn't love it when children cried, He didn't love tea with raspberry And womanly hysterics …And I was his wife. I don't like him at all, it was He who wanted to become a god and a tsar, He hung up a poet's signboard Over the doors in my silent home. I love the chosen one of freedom, The sea-traveler and rifleman. Oh, the waters sang so loudly to him, And the clouds envied him. New York:Modern Library, , Now an academic, now a hero, Now a sea-traveler, now a carpenter, He with an all-embracing soul Was a perpetual worker on the throne.

This citation is a diminished criticism of a diminished hubris.